The Biologic Effects of Bond Apatite® in New Bone Formation in Osseous Defects

Case 1 - Bond Apatite® Histology 3 months post op

True regeneration resulting in over 90% vital bone

The Biologic Effects of Bond Apatite® in New Bone Formation in Osseous Defects

  • Bond Apatite is a composite bone graft cement, which is made of pure Biphasic calcium sulfate cement and Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, in a 2:1 ratio.
  • The HA component is specifically designed to consist of particle sizes, ranging from 90 microns to 1mm. The HA particulate component of the graft provides two primary functions:
    • To slow down the overall resorption rate of the graft.
    • To maintain the graft volume.
  • This unique composite ratio creates the ability for the graft to be utilized in a wide variety of augmentation procedures, ranging from managing small and simple bony deficiencies to larger and more complex regenerative procedures in the oral cavity.
  • The physiologic bone formation mechanism is entirely different from the wound healing in conventional particulate bone grafting procedures. Calcium sulfate (CS) component does not simply resorb but creates an interaction and a biological effect with the body’s cells that are responsible for bone formation and growth. This interaction significantly stimulates bone formation – therefore categorizing Bond Apatite® as a bioactive material.
  • As CS dissolves and is resorbed, a vast number of calcium ions are released. In a biological process, the calcium then precipitates into hydroxyapatite-like calcium phosphate mineral latticework, which acts as an osteoconductive trellis for new bone formation. This becomes incorporated into new bone and then remodels as the bone matures over time.
  • The HA particles occupying 1/3 of the composite graft are intended to slow down the overall resorption rate of the graft. The HA particles do not integrate with the bone, they are first encapsulated by connective tissue, slowly resorb, and later on, the remaining connective tissue under goes ossification. Therefore the graft is replaced with 100% vital bone.  
  • At 12 weeks after placing the graft, nearly 90% is replaced by the patient’s own bone. After eight months of healing time, the Bond Apatite graft is entirely resorbed with no encapsulated materials remaining due to the complete transformation of the graft into the new vital bone.
  • This unique composite graft provides consistent and predictable bone regeneration by utilizing two different resorption modes found in this bone cement:
    • Biphasic Calcium sulfate – Comprises of 2/3 of the graft material and resorbs relatively quickly, within 4 to 10 weeks.
    • HA Particles – Due to the unique controlled range of particle sizes, they resorb over a period of a few months.
      • The small- and medium-sized HA particles resorb in 3-4 months. In contrast, the larger size particles, which comprise less than 10%, will remain for a prolonged period, fully resorbing after eight months.

Case 2 - Bond Apatite® Histology 8 months post op

Core for histology was harvested 8 months post op

Case 3 - Bond Apatite® Histology 8 months post op

Core for histology was harvested 8 months post op

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